Evolution is a complex phenomenon driven by various processes, such as mutation and recombination of genetic material, reproduction of individuals, and selection of favourable types. These processes all have intrinsically random elements, which give rise to a wealth of phenomena that cannot be explained by deterministic models. Examples of such effects are the loss of genetic variability due to random reproduction and the emergence of random genealogies.

The collection is centred around the stochastic processes in population genetics and population dynamics. On the one hand, these are individual-based models of predator-prey and of coevolution type, of adaptive dynamics, or of experimental evolution, considered in the usual forward direction of time. They lead to processes describing the evolution of type frequencies, which may then be analysed via suitable limit theorems. On the other hand, one traces the ancestral lines of individuals back into the past; this leads to random genealogies. Beyond the classical concept of Kingman's coalescent, emphasis is on genealogies with multiple mergers and on ancestral structures that take into account selection, recombination, or migration.

The contributions in this volume will be valuable to researchers interested in stochastic processes and their biological applications, or in mathematical population biology.

]]>These lecture notes aim to present a fast-track study of some important topics in classical parts of von Neumann algebra theory that were developed in the 1970s. Starting with Tomita–Takesaki theory, this book covers topics such as the standard form, Connes’ cocycle derivatives, operator-valued weights, type III structure theory and non-commutative integration theory.

The self-contained presentation of the material makes this book useful not only to graduate students and researchers who want to know the fundamentals of von Neumann algebras, but also to interested undergraduates who have a basic knowledge of functional analysis and measure theory.

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This book explains the similarities in asymptotic behaviour as the result of two basic properties shared by the structures: the conditioning relation and the logarithmic condition. The discussion is conducted in the language of probability, enabling the theory to be developed under rather general and explicit conditions; for the finer conclusions, Stein's method emerges as the key ingredient. The book is thus of particular interest to graduate students and researchers in both combinatorics and probability theory.]]>

An updated introduction to the now rich subject of KAM theory for PDEs is provided in the first part of this research monograph. We then focus on the nonlinear wave equation, endowed with periodic boundary conditions. The main result of the monograph proves the bifurcation of small amplitude finite-dimensional invariant tori for this equation, in any space dimension. This is a difficult small divisor problem due to complex resonance phenomena between the normal mode frequencies of oscillations. The proof requires various mathematical methods, ranging from Nash–Moser and KAM theory to reduction techniques in Hamiltonian dynamics and multiscale analysis for quasi-periodic linear operators, which are presented in a systematic and self-contained way. Some of the techniques introduced in this monograph have deep connections with those used in Anderson localization theory.

This book will be useful to researchers who are interested in small divisor problems, particularly in the setting of Hamiltonian PDEs, and who wish to get acquainted with recent developments in the field.]]>

This book presents a unified approach to the analysis of accuracy of deterministic mathematical models described by variational problems and partial differential equations of elliptic type. It is based on new mathematical methods developed to estimate the distance between a solution of a boundary value problem and any function in the admissible functional class associated with the problem in question. The theory is presented for a wide class of elliptic variational problems. It is applied to the investigation of modelling errors arising in dimension reduction, homogenization, simplification, and various conversion methods (penalization, linearization, regularization, etc.). A collection of examples illustrates the performance of error estimates.]]>

The book contains an extended catalogue of examples of such Mackey 2-functors that are already in use in many mathematical fields from algebra to topology, from geometry to KK-theory. Among the first results of the theory, the ambidexterity theorem gives a way to construct further examples and the separable monadicity theorem explains how the value of a Mackey 2-functor at a subgroup can be carved out of the value at a larger group, by a construction that generalizes ordinary localization in the same way that the étale topology generalizes the Zariski topology. The second part of the book provides a motivic approach to Mackey 2-functors, 2-categorifying the well-known span construction of Dress and Lindner. This motivic theory culminates with the following application: The idempotents of Yoshida’s crossed Burnside ring are the universal source of block decompositions.

The book is self-contained, with appendices providing extensive background and terminology. It is written for graduate students and more advanced researchers interested
in category theory, representation theory and topology.]]>

This book serves as a relatively quick and handy introduction to the theory of algebraic surfaces and is intended for readers with a good knowledge of basic algebraic geometry. Although an acquaintance with the basic parts of books like *Principles of Algebraic Geometry* by Griffiths and Harris or *Algebraic Geometry* by Hartshorne should be sufficient, the author strove to make the text as self-contained as possible and, for this reason, a first chapter is devoted to a quick exposition of some preliminaries.]]>

Optimization results obtained in real time yield a potential of energy savings of up to 4–6% daily for the waterworks in the pilot area.

This book was written for automation experts in water supply companies as well as mathematicians who work for infrastructure companies.]]>

This book is a useful source for learning important techniques and an effective reference for all researchers working in or interested in the area of function field arithmetic, from graduate students to established experts.]]>