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# Journal of the European Mathematical Society

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**Volume 18, Issue 7, 2016, pp. 1565–1650**

**DOI: 10.4171/JEMS/623**

Published online: 2016-05-20

Proof of the cosmic no-hair conjecture in the $\mathbb T^3$-Gowdy symmetric Einstein–Vlasov setting

Håkan Andréasson^{[1]}and Hans Ringström

^{[2]}(1) Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden

(2) KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

The currently preferred models of the universe undergo accelerated expansion induced by dark energy. One model for dark energy is a positive cosmological constant. It is consequently of interest to study Einstein’s equations with a positive cosmological constant coupled to matter satisfying the ordinary energy conditions: the dominant energy condition etc. Due to the difficulty of analysing the behaviour of solutions to Einstein’s equations in general, it is common to either study situations with symmetry, or to prove stability results. In the present paper, we do both. In fact, we analyse, in detail, the future asymptotic behaviour of $\mathbb T^3$-Gowdy symmetric solutions to the Einstein–Vlasov equations with a positive cosmological constant. In particular, we prove the cosmic no-hair conjecture in this setting. However, we also prove that the solutions are future stable (in the class of all solutions). Some of the results hold in a more general setting. In fact, we obtain conclusions concerning the causal structure of $\mathbb T^2$-symmetric solutions, assuming only the presence of a positive cosmological constant, matter satisfying various energy conditions and future global existence. Adding the assumption of $\mathbb T^3$-Gowdy symmetry to this list of requirements, we obtain $C^0$-estimates for all but one of the metric components. There is consequently reason to expect that many of the results presented in this paper can be generalised to other types of matter.

*Keywords: *Einstein–Vlasov system, cosmic no-hair conjecture, Gowdy symmetry

Andréasson Håkan, Ringström Hans: Proof of the cosmic no-hair conjecture in the $\mathbb T^3$-Gowdy symmetric Einstein–Vlasov setting. *J. Eur. Math. Soc.* 18 (2016), 1565-1650. doi: 10.4171/JEMS/623